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Understanding AddictionThe recent media hype about the “opiate crisis” in America has been good for drawing the public attention to the problem of addiction, but this crisis has actually been developing for decades. Around the year 2000 we began to see a rise in the use of opioid (narcotic) pain medications. The use of pain medications escalated after they were found to be very effective in the relief of cancer pain and surgical pain. With such success for acute pain relief, and few other rapidly effective options, opioids became the standard for pain control. However, with increasing use we began to see dependence and addiction.

Heroin had once been the most noteworthy of the abused opioids. Yet with the increase prescription opioid use, prescribed pain pill abuse overtook heroin. This was driven by many factors, including hospitals and physicians coming under fire and being penalized for not controlling patients’ pain. Use escalated dramatically from 2000 to 2012 when measures were taken to cut back on prescription opioids. Predictably, heroin use rapidly escalated with the sudden cut-back in prescribed opioid availability.

Prescription pain medications have been the leading cause of drug overdose deaths until about 2013 when heroin once again overtook the prescribed opioids in overdose deaths. Another phenomena occurred when super-potent forms of the pain-reliever fentanyl were developed, and drug dealers starting lacing their drugs with this new fentanyl to make their drugs more addictive. This new fentanyl is so potent and so poorly controlled in dosing that overdose deaths have skyrocketed.

The New York Times reported on preliminary government data indicating that fentanyl deaths have risen 540% in the past 3 years, overtaking all other drugs in overdose deaths. According to the same article, death from drug overdose has been and will remain the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of 50.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/09/02/upshot/fentanyl-drug-overdose-deaths.html

Despite all these alarming changes and numbers, people still understand very little about addiction. Few learn what addiction is, how to avoid it, or how to treat it.

  • Many formulations

Brand Names:

  • Abstral
  • Fentora
  • Actin
  • Lazanda
  • Onsolis
  • Duragesic
  • Sublimaze
  • Subsys

Brand Names:

  • Dilaudid, Dilaudid-HP
  • Exalgo

Brand Name:

  • Levo-Dromoran

Brand Name:

  • Demerol

Brand Names:

  • Dolphin
  • Methadose

Brand Names:

  • Avinza
  • Kadian
  • MS Contin
  • Oramorph
  • SR Roxanne

Brand Name:

  • Nubain

Brand Name:

  • OxyContin
  • OxyFast
  • Roxicodone
  • Oxecta

Brand Names:

  • Opana
  • Opana ER

Brand Name:

  • Talwin

Brand Name:

  • Darvon, Darvon-N

Brand Names:

  • Nucynta. Nucynta ER
  • Nucynta ER

Brand Name:

  • Rybix ODT
  • Ryzolt
  • Ultram
  • Ultram ER
  • ConZip

Brand Names:

  • Stadol NS
  • Nubain
  • Stadol

Brand Names:

  • Butrans
  • Buprenex

Brand Name:

  • Tylenol #3
  • Tylenol #4

Brand Name:

  • Fiorinol with codeine

Brand Name:

  • Phenergan/Codeine

Brand Names:

  • Ibudone
  • Reprexain

Brand Names:

  • Hycet
  • Lorcet, Lorcet Plus
  • Loretta
  • Maxidone
  • Norco
  • Vicodin, VicodinES, Vicodin HP
  • Zamicet
  • Zodone

Brand Names:

  • Endocet
  • Percocet
  • Primalev
  • Roxicet
  • Tylox
  • Xolox
  • Magnacet

Brand Name:

  • Percodan

Brand Name:

  • Combunox

Brand Names:

  • Balacet 325
  • Darvocet

Brand Names:

  • Panlor DC
  • Panlor SS
  • Trezix

Street Names:

  • Big O
  • Black Stuff
  • Block
  • Gum
  • Hop
  • Dover’s Powder

Street Names:

  • Dope
  • Smack
  • H
  • Train
  • Thunder
  • Black Tar
  • China Whitehorse
  • Junk
  • Antifreeze
  • Brown Sugar
  • Henry
  • Horse
  • Skag
  • Hero
  • Hell Dust

Street Names:

  • Apache
  • China Girl
  • China White
  • Dance Fever
  • Friend
  • Goodfella
  • King Ivory
  • Murder 8
  • TNT
  • Tango
  • Cash

Street Names:

  • M
  • Miss Emma
  • Monkey
  • White Stuff
  • Dreamer

Street Names:

  • Schoolboy
  • Cough Syrup
  • T-three’s

Street Names:

  • Vikes
  • Viko
  • Norco
  • Hydro

Street Names:

  • Ox
  • Oxicotten
  • oxycet
  • codeine
  • morphine
  • methadone
  • fentanyl
  • oxycodone
  • oxycontin
  • hydrocodone
  • hydromorphone
  • hydrocodone
  • oxymorphone
  • meperidine
  • propoxyphene
  • heroin
  • Pain relief
  • Euphoria
  • Cough suppression
  • Dysphoria
  • Respiratory depression/arrest
  • Hypotension, shock
  • Constipation
  • Dependency/abuse
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Somnolence
  • Dizziness
  • Itching
  • Rash
  • Confusion
  • Hallucinations
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Hypothermia
  • Fevers
  • Urinary retention
  • Dry mouth (dental damage)
  • Sweating
  • Anxiety
  • Abdominal pain
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Paralytic ileus
  • Seizures
  • Biliary spasm
  • Withdrawal symptoms
  • Neonatal withdrawal syndrome (with use during pregnancy)
  • Decreased testosterone levels
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Muscle aches
  • Increased tearing
  • Insomnia
  • Runny nose
  • Sweating
  • Yawning
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Diarrhea
  • Dilated pupils
  • Goose bumps
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

* Opioid withdrawal reactions are very uncomfortable but are usually not life threatening.

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